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New York – The world’s average surface temperature in 2021 tied with 2018 as the sixth warmest on record, according to independent analyses done by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Continuing the planet’s long-term warming trend, global temperatures in 2021 were 0.85Cdeg above the average for NASA’s baseline period, according to their scientists.

Collectively, the past eight years are the warmest years since modern recordkeeping began in 1880. This annual temperature data makes up the global temperature record which tells scientists the planet is warming.

According to NASA’s temperature records, Earth in 2021 was about 1.1Cdeg warmer than the late 19th century average, the start of the industrial revolution.

Science leaves no room for doubt. Climate change is the existential current threat for the planet. Eight of the top 10 warmest years occurred in the last decade. NASA’s scientific research about how Earth is changing and getting warmer will guide communities throughout the world, helping humanity confront climate and mitigate its devastating effects.

This warming trend around the globe is due to human activities that have increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The planet is already seeing the effects of global warming. Arctic sea ice is declining, sea levels are rising, wildfires are becoming more severe and animal migration patterns are shifting.

Understanding how the planet is changing and how rapidly that change occurs is crucial for humanity to prepare for and adapt to a warmer world.

Weather stations, ships, and ocean buoys around the globe record the temperature at Earth’s surface throughout the year.

These ground-based measurements of surface temperature are validated with satellite data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on NASA’s Aqua satellite.

Scientists analyse these measurements using computer algorithms to deal with uncertainties in the data and quality control to calculate the global average surface temperature difference for every year.

NASA compares that global mean temperature to its baseline period of 1951-1980. That baseline includes climate patterns and unusually hot or cold years due to other factors, ensuring that it encompasses natural variations in Earth’s temperature.

Many factors affect the average temperature any given year, such as La Nina and El Nino climate patterns in the tropical Pacific. For example, 2021 was a La Nina year and NASA scientists estimate that it may have cooled global temperatures by about 0.03Ceg from what the average would have been.

The complexity of the various analyses doesn’t matter because the signals are so strong. The trends are all the same because the trends are so large.